The SWAP (Solid Waste Accountability Platform) was a three-year USAID funded project (2019-2022) to strengthen the solid waste management systems in three Cambodian urban centers – Siem Reap, Kampong Cham and Stueng Saen. SWAP increased municipal government and service provider accountability in Cambodia’s solid waste sector by developing and integrating a digital tool (mobile app – Waste Tracker) accessible to citizens, empowering citizens to report solid waste management issues to a public platform, and enabling all stakeholders to view the reported concerns. App development was supported by a strong monitoring and evaluation plan to maximize user adoption.

A Practical Guide to Available Pit Emptying Technologies

A Practical Guide to Available Pit Emptying Technologies is a sector wide resource TE supported Carbyne Enterprises to create. Designed to assist field practitioners, NGOs, utilities and sanitation enterprises, the Guide describes 15 pit-emptying technologies currently on the market. An interactive use-case factor table allows implementers to select factors within their operating environment to best select suitable technologies given their region of practice. The Guide and use-case factor table are available for free download on our Press page, or from the Faecal Sludge Management Alliance.


Sanivation is a sanitation partner for secondary cities in Kenya and throughout East Africa. TE serves as a technical expert for Sanivation. TE locally supports all field-testing, including identifying safe operating procedures, capacity building of staff on use, maintenance activities, data collection, analysis and reporting on the Viscous Heater (Oklahoma State University), a sludge treatment technology installed at Sanivation’s pilot scale fecal sludge treatment plant. The field trials resulted in the long-term adoption of the Viscous Heater into standard operating procedures at the treatment facility. TE supported Sanivation in the technology assessment of viable solutions for containment up to transport along the sanitation value chain for Wajir County, a semi-arid region in northwestern Kenya. The water utility, Wajir Water and Sewerage Company, is implementing one of the top 3 processes recommended by TE and Sanivation.


Opero Services is a Kenyan engineering and business development firm that specializes in scaling WaSH technologies and enterprises. TE supports Opero Services on the technical assistance and capacity development of local sanitation enterprises, including Sistema Biobolsa, a global leader in anaerobic digestion for smallholder farmers and agribusinesses in Kenya.


The Excluder is a dynamic pump screen enabling safe, efficient onsite sanitation servicing for pits and septic tanks with high volumes of trash or thick sludge. The Excluder reduces workers exposure to sludge by providing a mechanized means for servicing pits which historically had to be emptied via manual means. TE leads the research on the iterative design process and field-testing of the Excluder, including training local operators on it’s use in seven countries. TE is investigating the commercialization strategy and outreach to get the Excluder to market.


Duke’s onsite blackwater treatment system was installed in a community ablution block in an informal settlement in Durban, South Africa (2018-2019). Waste generated onsite was treated and recycled back as flush water to the public toilets. TE locally supported all field-testing and implementation of the MEL plan, all community and stakeholder engagement, maintenance activities, sourcing local parts, data analysis and reporting. Testing performance and lessons learned are publicly available in the Journal of the Total Environment. Upgrades made to the system are currently being tested in India.


Crane Engineering led development of the Mobile Septage Treatment System (MSTS) designed to treat waste onsite from pit latrines and septic tanks. The MSTS’s ability to treat and discharge non-potable water at the source enables service providers to reduce transport to the treatment facility by 50-80%, making service provision more efficient, while decreasing servicing costs. TE assisted Crane with the technology R&D, data collection, analysis and reporting, and field-testing in Wisconsin (USA), Washington State (USA), and Dakar, Senegal.